Auxiliary Modules

Modules 7-10

Module 7

The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) component of the DOST-CORDEX Project aims to explain the influence of SST to climate variability in the Philippines. This module introduces the fundamentals of SST and its impacts to Philippine climate, as well as some general findings of our project.

Module 8

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are natural hazards considered as one of the most devastating weather phenomena in the world. From the seven oceanic regions recognized as basins for TC development, the Western North Pacific (WNP) basin has the greatest number of TCs (Vincent and Fink, 2001). An average of 30 TCs develop in WNP yearly and about 20 TCs enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) (Cinco et al., 2016). Given the significance of TCs, both in contributing to rainfall and its disastrous impacts in the Philippines, it is important to determine how these TCs will change in the future under a globally warmer world. This module includes important topics regarding TCs including the fundamentals of TC formation and changes in TC patterns and behavior in the context of a warming climate.

Module 9

The Philippines relies heavily on agricultural output to meet food security demands. Agriculture is still a main driver component of the Philippine economy. Together with the shift to more renewable sources of energy, hydroelectric power and infrastructure are also top priorities. However, these are heavily impacted during times of drought. As climate change is seen to increase the likelihood of extreme rainfall events, the challenge to mitigate and adapt to drought becomes more difficult. Drought can be thought of as the extreme deficient-end of the rainfall variability.

Module 10

In the Philippines, intense rainfall is one of the major causes of frequent flooding in low-lying areas. This often results in infrastructure damage and human impacts, especially in densely populated cities such as Metro Manila, which has a population density of roughly 20,000 persons per sq. km. This pressing issue is one of the motivations why we are interested in understanding the rainfall events in the area.


This module hopes to answer the following objectives: Characterize the different types of rainfall; Explain the formation of a convective rainfall (or a localized thunderstorm); nterpret the diurnal characteristics of convective rainfall over Metro-Manila